Recent Changes

Wednesday, March 8

  1. page Chapter 1 Vocabulary edited ... Accommodation- Modification - A modification changes the learning outcome or objective. Ch…
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    Accommodation-
    Modification -
    A modification changes the learning outcome or objective. Changing the modification could change assignments, test, or instructional content, but modifications change the learning outcomes or objectives. It may not always change other components of the class.
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  2. page Chapter 1 Vocabulary edited ... Nondiscriminatory Evaluation: Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Due Process Process: …
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    Nondiscriminatory Evaluation:
    Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
    Due Process Process:
    Relating it to education/special education: IEP due process is protected under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and is a formal way to resolve disputes with a school about your child’s education. You can file a due process complaint only for special education disputes, not for general education issues. You have the right to an impartial hearing officer and to present evidence and witnesses at the due process hearing.

    Free, Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
    Individual Educational Program (IEP)
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    Special Education- .
    Supplementary aids and services-
    ...
    extent appropriate.
    Person first language
    Accommodation-
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Tuesday, March 7

  1. page Chapter 1 Vocabulary edited ... Related services- Special Education- . ... aids and services . services- means aids, se…
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    Related services-
    Special Education- .
    ...
    aids and services .services-
    means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes, other education-related settings, and in extracurricular and nonacademic settings, to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate.

    Person first language
    Accommodation-
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Friday, March 3

  1. page home edited ... Triangles TIme Characteristics of Special Needs Assignment Characteristics of Special Nee…
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    Triangles
    TIme
    Characteristics of Special Needs Assignment
    Characteristics of Special Needs
    Chapter 3 Special Students, Special Needs
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  2. page Characteristics edited ... cite where they you found their the information. Visual Impairment- Visual impairmen…
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    cite where theyyou found theirthe information.
    Visual Impairment-
    Visual impairment
    -Involves an issue with sight which interferes with a student’s academic pursuit.
    Characteristics
    -Eyes that don’t move at the same time
    -Rubbing eyes or covering one to see
    -Squinting to read or leaning into see a screen
    Causes
    -An accident
    -Congenital blindness
    -Amblyopia
    -Cataracts
    -Glaucoma
    -Macular
    -Trachoma
    Educational strategies
    -Move to the front of the room
    -Make print bigger on homework and test
    -Have an easy walk way into and out of classroom
    -Explain things in greater details to allow the student to imagine what it would look like
    Video
    -https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dPC_--R-Ma0
    Special Education Resource Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=1582645
    Visual Impairment. (n.d.). Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/visual-impairment.html?WT.ac=p-ra
    Intellectual Disabilities-
    Characteristics-
    An intellectual disability, formerly referred to as “mental retardation”, is not an inherent trait of any student, but instead is characterized by a combination of deficits in both cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior.
    Limitations in intellectual functions:
    - Difficulties with memory recall
    - Task and skill generalization
    - The tendency towards low motivation and learned helplessness
    Limitations in adaptive behavior:
    - Conceptual skills
    - Social skills
    - Practical skills
    - Self-determination skills
    - Others: choice making, problem-solving, and goal-setting
    Possible Causes-
    The severity of the intellectual disability is determined by the discrepancy between the individual's capabilities in learning and in and the expectations of the social environment.
    Causes Include:
    - Infections (present at birth or occurring after birth)
    - Chromosomal abnormalities (Down Syndrome)
    - Environmental
    - Metabolic (such as hyperbilirubinemia; very high bilirubin levels in babies)
    - Nutritional (Malnutrition)
    - Toxic (exposure to alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines, and other drugs)
    - Trauma (before and after birth)
    - Unexplained (Doctors can't diagnose the cause)
    Educational Strategies-
    Teachers need to provide direct instruction in a number of skill areas outside of the general education curriculum.
    Additional Skill Areas Include:
    - Money concepts
    - Time concepts
    - Independent living skills
    - Self-care and hygiene
    - Community access
    - Leisure activities
    - Vocational training
    Students with intellectual disabilities effectively learn these skills through setting in which these skills are applied. Once mastered, the skills can be added to different environments to work towards generalization.
    Other Teaching Strategies:
    - Teach one concept or activity component at a time
    - Teach one step at a time to help support memorization and sequencing
    - Teach students in small groups, or one-on-one, if possible
    - Always provide multiple opportunities to practice skills in different settings
    - Use physical and verbal prompting to guide verbal praise to reinforce these responses
    Video-
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PzPkt9vri3E
    Citations-
    Intellectual Disabilities - Project IDEAL. (n.d.). (2016) Retrieved from http://www.projectidealonline.org/v/intellectual-disabilities/
    Citations Provided by the Article
    Hunt, N., & Marshall, K. (2006). Exceptional children and youth. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Turnbull, A., Turnbull, R., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2007). Exceptional lives. Special education in today's schools.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
    Fey, M.E., Warren, S.F., Brady, N., Finestack, L.H., Bredin-Oja, S. L., Fairchild, M., Sokol, S., & Yoder, P. J. (2006). Early effects of responsivity education/prelinguistic milieu teaching for children with developmental delays and their parents. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 49, 526-547.
    Rosenberg, M. S., Westling, D. L., & McLeskey, J. (2013, July 24). Primary characteristics of students with intellectual disabilities. Retrieved from
    http://www.education.com/reference/article/characteristics-intellectual-disabilities/
    Down syndrome-
    Characteristics
    Low muscle tone (babies appear "floppy")
    Flat facial features, with a small nose
    Upward slant to the eyes
    Small skin folds on the inner corner of the eyes
    Small, abnormally shaped ears
    Single deep crease across the center of the palm
    Hyper flexibility (excessive ability to extend joints)
    Fifth finger has only one flexion furrow instead of two
    Extra space between the big toe and the second toe
    Enlarged tounge that tends to stick out
    Possible Causes
    Any one of three genetic variations can cause Down syndrome:
    Trisomy 21. About 95 percent of the time, Down syndrome is caused by trisomy 21 — the child has three copies of chromosome 21 (instead of the usual two copies) in all cells. This is caused by abnormal cell division during the development of the sperm cell or the egg cell.
    Mosaic Down syndrome. In this rare form of Down syndrome, children have some cells with an extra copy of chromosome 21. This mosaic of normal and abnormal cells is caused by abnormal cell division after fertilization.
    Translocation Down syndrome. Down syndrome can also occur when part of chromosome 21 becomes attached (translocated) onto another chromosome, before or at conception. These children have the usual two copies of chromosome 21, but they also have additional material from chromosome 21 attached to the translocated chromosome.
    There are no known behavioral or environmental factors that cause Down syndrome.
    Educational Strategies
    Children with Down syndrome have specific points associated with their learning development:
    1. They are visual learners.
    2. They understand a lot more than they can say, so allow them to draw. The students are hands on learners.
    3. They are able to follow classroom rules and routines. Classroom management can be obtained using the same routine and methods each day.
    4. They need help to remember instructions – use shorter phrases or visual clues.
    5. Teacher’s expectations of behavior, attitude and ability should be high.
    Video
    Citation
    Q. (2013). Five Instructional Strategies for Children with Down syndrome. Retrieved November 01, 2016, from http://gigisplayhouse.org/quadcities/uncategorized/five-instructional-strategies-for-children-with-down-syndrome
    Staff, B. M. (n.d.). Down syndrome. Retrieved November 01, 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/down-syndrome/basics/causes/CON-20020948
    Understanding Down Syndrome- Signs. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/children/understanding-down-syndrome-symptoms#1
    Traumatic Brain Injury-
    Characteristics:
    Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
    fatigue
    headaches
    visual disturbances
    memory loss
    poor attention/concentration
    sleep disturbances
    dizziness/loss of balance
    irritability/emotional disturbances
    feelings of depression
    seizures
    Moderate TBI
    coma (to varying degrees)
    confusion
    difficulty with "thinking skills" (memory, attention, judgment)
    blurred vision, loss of vision
    change in hearing acuity
    ringing in ears
    slurred speech
    difficulty understanding spoken language
    difficulty processing sensory input (touch, smell, hearing, etc.)
    personality changes
    loss of taste and/or smell
    paralysis
    lethargy
    loss of bowel/bladder control
    dizziness
    inappropriate emotional responses
    Severe TBI
    results in significant permanent neurological damage
    produces lifelong deficits to a severe degree
    may require lifetime care and assistance
    is defined as a loss of consciousness greater than 6 hours and Glasgow Coma scale of 3 to 8
    occurs in 14 out of 100,000 people
    results in death 33% of the time (Dawodu, 2005)
    Causes:
    an outside force impacts the head hard enough to cause the brain to move within the skull
    an outside force causes the skull to break and directly hurt the brain
    Teaching Stategies:
    Attentions/Concentration-Reduce distractions in the student’s work area
    Frequently repeat information and summarize it
    Organization-Additional time for review, written checklist
    Following Instructions-Providing oral and written instructions
    Video:
    The video discusses mild traumatic brain injuries.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gvWi6vXWujI
    References:
    Center, O., Autism, & Incidence, L. (2016, October 31). Ohio center for autism and low incidence. Retrieved November 1, 2016, from http://www.ocali.org/project/learn_about_tbi/page/tbi_characteristics
    Lash, M. Teaching strategies for students with brain injuries. Retrieved November 1, 2016, from http://www.biaoregon.org/docetc/Resources/children/teaching.strategies.for.students.with.brain.injuries.pdf
    Dyscalculia-
    A condition that causes difficulty in making arithmetical calculations, as a result of brain disorder.
    Characteristics:
    have the inability to understand the meaning of numbers and their quantities
    have a hard time remembering specific facts and formulas
    have trouble learning basic arithmetic facts
    have trouble telling and keeping track of time
    may have trouble handling money as well
    have trouble understanding abstract ideas
    may have trouble paying attention in class
    students may also be anxious about class, classwork, and exams.
    Possible causes:
    often co-occurs with other learning difficulties such as dyslexia, dyspraxia, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and specific language impairment (SLI).
    environmental causes include alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and pre-term birth. Both of these can result in underdevelopment of the brain.
    Genetic causes include known genetic disorders such as Turner's syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome, Williams syndrome.
    an injury to the brain too can cause dyscalculia in children
    Educational Strategies:
    Teach the students different ways of doing a concept
    Begin teaching a new concept with a concrete examples and slowly work towards more abstract examples
    Use manipulatives to help them understand the concept that is being taught.
    Repeatedly reinforce concepts that the student with dyscalculia has learned so that they remember the concept
    Video:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sGMVF0BvXuY
    References:
    Greene, K. (n.d.). Dyscalculia. Retrieved from http://memorial.mentorschools.org/karberg/greenek3.htm
    Logsdon, A. (n.d.). What is dyscalculia? math learning disabilities. Retrieved from http://learningdisabilities.about.com/od/learningdisabilitybasics/p/Dyscalculia.htm.
    National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2006). Dyscalculia. Retrieved from http://www.ldonline.org/article/13709/.
    Dysgraphia-
    A condition that causes trouble with written expression. It is a brain based issue.
    Characteristics:
    · Holding a pencil and organizing letters on a line are difficult.
    · Handwriting tends to be messy
    · Struggle with spelling
    · Struggle with thoughts onto paper
    · Can fall behind in school because takes longer to write
    · Fine motor skills may be weak
    · May be frustrated or anxious
    Possible Causes:
    · Retrieving information from short or long term memory gets mixed up while organizing to begin writing; organizing info, getting words onto paper
    · The working memory fails to remember how to write a letter or word
    · Orthographic coding- ability to store unfamiliar written words in working memory
    Educational Strategies:
    · Allow the student to type the assignment
    · Voice record the notes so the student doesn’t have to write
    · Allow the student to write a shorter paper or shorter test
    · Do writing exercises with the student; copying letters repeatedly, paper with raised lines to stay in the lines
    Reference:
    Patino, E. (n.d.). Understanding Dysgraphia. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/child-learning-disabilities/dysgraphia/understanding-dysgraphia#item7
    Video:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WMfl5kqSWmk
    Dyslexia-
    Characteristics:
    Has trouble recognizing the letters of the alphabet
    Struggles to match letters to sounds, such as not knowing what sounds b or h make
    Has difficulty blending sounds into words, such as connecting C-H-A-T to the word chat
    Struggles to pronounce words correctly, such as saying “mawn lower” instead of “lawn mower”
    Has difficulty learning new words
    Has a smaller vocabulary than other kids the same age
    Has trouble learning to count or say the days of the week and other common word sequences
    Has trouble rhyming
    Possible cause:
    Genes and heredity
    Brain anatomy
    Brain activity
    Strategies:
    Get audiobooks through service like Bookshare, a free online library for students with disabilities
    Provide extra time for reading and writing
    Provide different ways to respond, like saying answers, having larger spaces for writing, or circling an answer instead of filling in the blank
    Hand out letter and number strips for students to look at so they can see how to write correctly
    Provide sentence starters that show how to begin a written response
    Allow understanding to be demonstrated in different ways (oral reports, video presentations, posters)
    Video:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zafiGBrFkRM
    References:
    Lapkin, E. (2014, April 2). Understanding dyslexia. Retrieved November 1, 2016, from https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/child-learning-disabilities/dyslexia/understanding-dyslexia?gclid=CjwKEAjw19vABRCY2YmkpO2OzTsSJAAzEt8ssZt6yIxsH9DJMyR2TwDJeG22nlnpAod1ujKT9mREahoCgA_w_wcB#top
    Morin, A. (2014, April 22). At a glance: Classroom accommodations for dyslexia. Retrieved November 1, 2016, from https://www.understood.org/en/school-learning/partnering-with-childs-school/instructional-strategies/at-a-glance-classroom-accommodations-for-dyslexia
    Bipolar/manic depressive illness:
    Characteristics
    Bipolar I disorder. You've had at least one manic episode. The manic episode may be preceded by or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes. Mania symptoms cause significant impairment in your life and may require hospitalization or trigger a break from reality (psychosis).
    Bipolar II disorder. You've had at least one major depressive episode lasting at least two weeks and at least one hypomanic episode lasting at least four days, but you've never had a manic episode. Major depressive episodes or the unpredictable changes in mood and behavior can cause distress or difficulty in areas of your life.
    Cyclothymic disorder. You've had at least two years — or one year in children and teenagers — of numerous periods of hypomania symptoms (less severe than a hypomanic episode) and periods of depressive symptoms (less severe than a major depressive episode). During that time, symptoms occur at least half the time and never go away for more than two months. Symptoms cause significant distress in important areas of your life.
    Other types. These include, for example, bipolar and related disorder due to another medical condition, such as Cushing's disease, multiple sclerosis or stroke. Another type is called substance and medication-induced bipolar and related disorder.
    Anxious distress — having anxiety, such as feeling keyed up, tense or restless, having trouble concentrating because of worry, fearing something awful may happen, or feeling you may not be able to control yourself
    Mixed features — meeting the criteria for a manic or hypomanic episode, but also having some or all symptoms of major depressive episode at the same time
    Melancholic features — having a loss of pleasure in all or most activities and not feeling significantly better, even when something good happens
    Atypical features — experiencing symptoms that are not typical of a major depressive episode, such as having a significantly improved mood when something good happens
    Catatonia — not reacting to your environment, holding your body in an unusual position, not speaking, or mimicking another person's speech or movement
    Peripartum onset — bipolar disorder symptoms that occur during pregnancy or in the four weeks after delivery
    Seasonal pattern — a lifetime pattern of manic, hypomanic or major depressive episodes that change with the seasons
    Rapid cycling — having four or more mood swing episodes within a single year, with full or partial remission of symptoms in between manic, hypomanic or major depressive episodes
    Psychosis — severe episode of either mania or depression (but not hypomania) that results in a detachment from reality and includes symptoms of false but strongly held beliefs (delusions) and hearing or seeing things that aren't there (hallucinations)
    Causes
    Biological differences. People with bipolar disorder appear to have physical changes in their brains. The significance of these changes is still uncertain but may eventually help pinpoint causes.
    Neurotransmitters. An imbalance in naturally occurring brain chemicals called neurotransmitters seems to play a significant role in bipolar disorder and other mood disorders.
    Inherited traits. Bipolar disorder is more common in people who have a first-degree relative, such as a sibling or parent, with the condition. Researchers are trying to find genes that may be involved in causing bipolar disorder.
    Teaching Strategies: There are a lot!!
    Schedule academic classes later in the day when the student is more alert and emotionally available for learning.
    Allow the student to take important tests later in the day when the student may be able to focus better.
    Allow the student to begin the school day a little later.
    Create formal contingency plans when the student is unstable and is experiencing periods of withdrawal or fatigue (a symptom of the illness and often a side effect of the medications).
    Assign a staff/school person who the student can go see when he or she feels unable to cope. This can be a counselor, school therapist, teacher, or any other person (campus monitor, school nurse, etc.) with whom the student feels safe and whom the student trusts and chooses. Give the student a permanent pass and a private signal that only he and the teacher understands so that he can make a private exit in front of the rest of the class.
    Offer the student a private place to go to calm down when feelings are overwhelming.
    Schedule regular meetings with the school psychologist to teach the student self-calming and anger management techniques.
    Assign an aide in the classroom to prevent situations that may cause the student to lose control.
    Administer a Functional Behavior Assessment to identify triggers that cause the student to lose control. Then write a Behavior Intervention Plan to be added to the IEP which provides appropriate interventions for problematic behaviors. This can be as simple as identifying stressors which cause untoward behaviors.
    Assign a safe place and person where the student can regroup and calm down –preferably someone with whom the student can talk easily.
    Have the student keep a journal in which he or she can address anxiety-producing thoughts and school experiences which can be shared with the school psychologist and the student’s personal therapist.
    If the treating psychiatrist recommends the use of a light box, provide this daily during a study period in the resource room.
    Reduce writing by allowing the student to use a computer so the page looks neat to him or her.
    Allow student to finish tasks before moving on.
    Have all teachers cue the student as to transitions and the time they will occur.
    Provide an aide who will give support during non-supervised periods of the school day (lunch, recess, escort to and from the bus waiting area, etc)
    Allow student to transition ahead of the rest of the class (going to lunch room, library, etc)
    Arrange for the student to learn social skills and group behavior by meeting with the school social worker, school psychologist, or the guidance counselor.
    Develop a social skills class and have the student participate in it.
    Place an aide in the classroom who can monitor social interactions and report incidents of social conflict. The aide can interpret and explain to the student how things occurred which may be outside the student’s perception. This aide can advocate for the child, act as a friend, make the child feel safe, and alert the school if there are any incidents of bullying going on.
    If the student participates, he or she must always have access to water and rest.
    The student should have the option of less competitive physical activity such as Yoga. Tae Kwan Do, weight training, aerobics, etc.
    The student should be graded based on attendance rather than participation.
    If necessary for the student’s emotional well-being, have an Adaptive P.E. written into the IEP until such time as the student is ready for mainstream physical education.
    If inclusion is an issue or a desire on the student’s part, the student could be appointed score keeper or equipment manager.
    Video
    Citation
    Staff, B. M. (n.d.). Bipolar disorder. Retrieved November 01, 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/basics/definition/CON-20027544
    Symptoms and accomodations - Juvenile Bipolar Research Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved November 01, 2016, from http://www.jbrf.org/page-for-families/educational-issues-facing-children-with-bipolar-disorder/symptoms-and-accomodations/
    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)-
    Characteristics
    Have symptoms of obsessions or compulsions, or both. Obsessions are repeated thoughts, urges, or mental images that cause anxiety. For example: fear of germs, having things symmetrical or perfectly in line, or having aggressive thoughts toward one’s self or another. Compulsions are repetitive behavior that a person feels the urge to do in response to an obsessive thought. For example: excessive washing of the hands or cleaning, ordering and arranging things in a particular, precise way, repeatedly checking on things, compulsive counting (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016).
    Possible causes
    Genetics: may have a genetic component, but the specific genes have yet to be identified (Mayo Clinic, n.d.).
    Biology: change in your body’s own natural chemistry or brain functions (Mayo Clinic, n.d.).
    Environment: some environmental factors are suggested as a trigger for OCD, such as infections (Mayo Clinic, n.d.).
    Having parents or family members that have OCD increases your risk for OCD (Mayo Clinic, n.d.)
    If you experience a stressful or traumatic event, you are at an increased risk for OCD. (Mayo Clinic, n.d.)
    Educational strategies
    Accommodate late arrivals (students with OCD are embarrassed about their time-consuming routines) (Beyond OCD, n.d.)
    • Frame rules positively (students with OCD often dwell on the negative) and repeat expectations often(Beyond OCD, n.d.).
    • Establish predictable routines; if there is a change, provide as much notice ahead of time as possible(Beyond OCD, n.d.).
    • Allow extra time for transitions between tasks (students with OCD frequently cannot begin a new task until completing the current task) (Beyond OCD, n.d.).
    • Offer a supportive environment where it’s okay to make mistakes, to express their emotions positively and to ask for help then needed(Beyond OCD, n.d.).
    • Make seating accommodations(Beyond OCD, n.d.).
    • Have a “cue” or signal that the student with OCD may use to alert you that they need to go to a predetermined “safe” place if the student develops increased anxiety or panic attacks(Beyond OCD, n.d.).
    Video
    Debunking the Myths of OCD (TEDed, n.d.)
    References
    Beyond OCD. (n.d.). Healthful support strategies. Retrieved from http://www.ocdeducationstation.org/role-of-school-personnel/healthful-support-strategies/
    Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/obsessive-compulsive-disorder/symptoms-causes/dxc-20245951
    National Institute of Mental Health. (2016, January). Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/index.shtml
    TEDed. (n.d.). Debunking the myths of OCD - Natascha M. Santos [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DhlRgwdDc-E
    Oppositional Defiant Disorder-
    Characteristics:
    Pattern of defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior towards authority figures (parents, teachers, caregivers, etc.)
    Behaviors last longer than 6 months.
    Some behaviors are: persistent negativity, defiance, disobedience, hostility, repeated temper tantrums, excessively arguing with adults, blaming others for misbehavior, become spiteful or vindictive
    Could also come with other mental illnesses or behavior problems, such as, depression, anxiety, learning disorders, ADHD (Orchard Place).
    Possible causes:
    Combination of factors influence this disorder.
    Genetic: family members have mental illnesses (mood disorders, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, etc.)
    Physical: Abnormal amounts of certain brain chemicals, neurotransmitters.
    Environmental: significant effect, chaotic home life, exposed to violence, friends with destructive or reckless manners
    Risk factors:
    Familial discord, dysfunctional home life, exposure to violence, exposure to substance abuse, inconsistent parenting (inconsistent discipline, interaction, etc.), abuse/neglect (Valley Behavioral Health Systems).
    Educational Strategies:
    These students need structure: rules, laws, rewards, punishment, love, guidance, and a sense of safety
    Strategies: Provide the student with choices, listen before reacting, discuss problem privately with student, walk away before situation gets too “hot”, follow through, whisper praises with bringing attention to the student, leave a positive note for the student to discover.
    Don’t threaten unless you are willing to carry out the threats, clearly define the expected behaviors, clearly define consequences, be firm and consistent, don’t allow emotions to rule (Woolsey-Terrazas, Chavez, 2002).
    Video:
    Video discusses the symptoms of ODD and some strategies to help parents and teachers know how to work with child.
    __https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uFJfBprTZW8__
    References:
    Orchard Place (2016). Oppositional defiant disorder in children. Retrieved from
    h__ttps://www.orchardplace.org/oppositional-defiant-disorder.aspx?gclid=CjwKEAjwtNbABRCsqO7J0_uJxWYSJAAiVo5LlnMM4CEO5RI_TrvNo8pngdudsp-v401mNewcIHQPERoCc6vw_wcB__
    Valley Behavioural Health Systems, (2016). Symptoms and signs of oppositional defiant disorder.
    Retrieved from __http://www.valleybehavioral.com/disorders/odd/signs-symptoms-causes#Causes-and-Risk-Factors-of-Oppositional-Defiant-Disorder__
    Woolsey-Terrazas, W., & Chavez, J. A., (2002). Strategies to work with students with oppositional
    defiant disorder. CEC Today, 8(7). Retrieved from
    __http://havasu.k12.az.us/public_forms/parent_information_network/behavior/BR23%20Strategies%20to%20Work%20with%20Students%20with%20Oppositional%20Defiant.pdf__
    Selective Mutism:
    Selective Mutism: People who are diagnosed with selective mutism are consistently unable to speak when it comes to certain social situations even though they are able to speak in other situations. This can lead to both social isolation and withdrawal. Some characteristics of selective mutism is that the individual has difficulty maintaining eye contact, they are reluctant to smile and oftentimes will have a blank facial expression, their body movements are often stiff and awkward, and they tend to worry more about things than other people do. Someone who has selective mutism will be extraordinarily sensitive to noise, crowds and crowded situation. Those who are diagnosed with selective mutism oftentimes have compulsive traits that appear to be similar to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) but, they are not related at all. A person with selective mutism may appear to be excessively shy when in reality they actually have a fear of people. People with selective mutism may also have an anxiety disorder such as social phobia. Many times a child with selective mutism has or is experiencing an anxiety disorder, inner self/self-esteem issues, a speech, language, or hearing problem. Selective mutism is usually an inherited disease in a form of anxiety. The first thing in the classroom to do is to remove all the direct pressure to speak. For instance, making comments that don’t necessarily require a response. When the child looks comfortable, ask forced-choice questions. It is important to wait awhile for a response because it may take the student a longer period of time to come up with an answer. When the child responds repeat what they say back to them in a statement. It is important that as a teacher you allow the accommodations of the students such as allowing nonverbal responses and whispering of answers.
    Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ML9Xwi_kk0
    Cite:
    Selective Mutism Symptoms | Psych Central. (2016). Retrieved October 29, 2016, from http://psychcentral.com/disorders/selective-mutism-symptoms/
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder/Attention Deficit Disorder
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder/Attention Deficit Disorder:
    ADHD
    Inattention, this is where the person is mind is wandering and they are just spacing off. They really struggle with paying attention in class because if something catches this student’s eye, they will soon lose track of class and watch that instead.
    Hyperactivity, this is where the person has to always be moving and if they are sitting down they will be moving their legs or tapping their fingers/pencil. They are very restless when they don’t need to be.
    Impulsivity, this is where a person can be very interruptive and they can start talking in the middle of someone else’s conversation, they will make irrational decisions without thinking of the long term consequences.
    Scientists are not sure what causes ADHD. Like many other illnesses, a number of factors can contribute to ADHD, such as:
    Genes
    Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, or drug use during pregnancy
    Exposure to environmental toxins during pregnancy
    Exposure to environmental toxins, such as high levels of lead, at a young age
    Low birth weight
    Brain injuries
    ADHD is more common in males than females, and females with ADHD are more likely to have problems primarily with inattention. Other conditions, such as learning disabilities, anxiety disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and substance abuse, are common in people with ADHD.
    Educational Strategies
    monitor his or her own behavior
    give oneself praise or rewards for acting in a desired way, such as controlling anger or thinking before acting
    Teachers also can give positive or negative feedback for certain behaviors and help establish clear rules, chore lists, and other structured routines to help a person control his or her behavior.
    Use audiovisual directions and lessons to help keep the students attention.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KyOdenFEwnQ
    Perkins, A. (2012, October 22). Let Me Be Your Camera - Understanding ADHD. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KyOdenFEwnQ
    NIMH » Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (2016, March). Retrieved October 28, 2016, from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml
    Tourette Syndrome-
    Tourette Syndrome: Tourette Syndrome or TS is a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, stereotyped, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics. Tics are classified as either simple or complex. Simple motor tics are sudden, brief, repetitive movements that involve a limited number of muscle groups. Some of the common simple tics include eye blinking and other eye movements, facial grimacing, shoulder shrugging, and head or shoulder jerking. Simple vocalizations can include repetitive throat-clearing, sniffing/snorting, barking or grunting sounds. Complex tics are distinct, coordinated patterns of movements involving several muscle groups. Complex motor tics can include facial grimacing combined with a head twist and a shoulder shrug. Other complex motor tics may actually appear purposeful, including sniffing or touching objects, hopping, jumping, bending, or twisting. More complex vocal tics include words or phrases. Perhaps the most dramatic and disabling tics include motor movements that result in self-harm such as punching oneself in the face or vocal tics including coprolalia, which is uttering socially inappropriate words such as swearing, or echolalia, repeating the words or phrases of others. Some tics are preceded by an urge or sensation in the affected muscle group, commonly called a premonitory urge. Some with TS will describe a need to complete a tic in a certain way or a certain number of times in order to relieve the urge or decrease the sensation. Tics are often worse with excitement or anxiety and better during calm, focused activities. The actual cause of TS is unknown but, current research points to abnormalities in certain brain regions. TS is known to be hereditary. Given the complex presentation of TS the cause of the disorder is likely to be just as complex. There are no known cures for TS. Although students with TS often function well in the regular classroom, ADHD, learning disabilities, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and frequent tics can greatly interfere with academic performance or social adjustment. After a comprehensive assessment, students should be placed in an educational setting that meets their individual needs. Students may require tutoring, smaller or special classes, and in some cases special schools. All students with TS need a tolerant and compassionate setting that both encourages them to work to their full potential and is flexible enough to accommodate their special needs. This setting may include a private study area, exams outside the regular classroom, or even oral exams when the child's symptoms interfere with his or her ability to write. Untimed testing reduces stress for students with TS.
    Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e8HtTb0Vk_o
    Cite:
    Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet. (n.d.). Retrieved October 29, 2016, from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tourette/detail_tourette.htm
    Auditory Processing Disorder
    Auditory Processing Disorder
    -Neurological defect that affects how the brain processes spoken language
    Characteristics
    -Bothered by loud noises
    -Behavior improve in quiet surroundings
    -Language difficulties
    -Disorganized and forgetful
    Causes
    -Head trauma
    -Lead poisoning
    -Chronic ear infections
    Educational strategies
    -Speech language therapy
    -Frequency modulation
    -Keeping classroom management for quiet room
    -Sitting in the front of the room
    -Giving the student notes before class
    Video
    -https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qrMa0f42i7M
    Auditory Processing Disorder. (n.d.). Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/central-auditory.html
    What is APD? (n.d.). Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://www.ncapd.org/What_is_APD_.html

    Deafness and Hearing Loss-
    Deafness is defined as a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification. A child with hearing loss can generally respond to auditory stimuli, including speech.
    ...
    Russo, J. (2016, April 22). Characteristics of Hearing Impairment and Deafness in Children. Retrieved November 01, 2016, from http://www.livestrong.com/article/509643
    characteristics-of-hearingimpairment-and-deafness-in-children/
    Visual Impairment-
    Intellectual Disabilities-
    Traumatic Brain Injury-
    Dyscalculia-
    Dysgraphia-
    Dyslexia-
    Bipolar/manic depressive illness:
    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)-
    Oppositional Defiant Disorder-
    Selective Mutism:
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder/Attention Deficit Disorder
    Tourette Syndrome-
    Auditory Processing Disorder-

    Autism/Asperger’s Syndrome/Rett Syndrome -
    Autism
    Autism is a general term for a group of complex disorders of brain development. These disorders are characterized, in varying degrees, by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors. From the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, around 1 in 68 American children have autism. Over the last five years, scientists have identified a number of rare gene changes, or mutations, associated with autism. A small number of these are sufficient to cause autism by themselves. Most cases of autism, however, appear to be caused by a combination of autism risk genes and environmental factors influencing early brain development. In the presence of a genetic predisposition to autism, a number of nongenetic, or “environmental,” stresses appear to further increase a child’s risk. They include advanced parental age at time of conception, maternal illness during pregnancy and certain difficulties during birth, particularly those involving periods of oxygen deprivation to the baby’s brain.
    [Fixers, U.K.]. (2013, July 29). What is Autism?. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mh75_u0uR8 .
    Age, By. "What Is Autism?"Autism Speaks. Autism Speaks Inc., n.d. Web. 01 Nov. 2016. <https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism>.
    Asperger’s Syndrome
    Asperger syndrome was generally considered to be on the “high functioning” end of the ASD spectrum. Affected children and adults have difficulty with social interactions and exhibit a restricted range of interests and/or repetitive behaviors. Behaviors usually are:
    Limited or inappropriate social interactions
    “robotic” or repetitive speech
    Challenges with nonverbal communication
    Tendency to discuss self rather than others
    Inability to understand social/emotional issues
    Lack of eye contact
    One-sided conversations
    Awkward movements and/or mannerisms
    [DNews]. (2013, Dec 10). What Is Asperger’s Syndrome?. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvV5-0xt7Wk .
    Age, By. "Asperger Syndrome."Autism Speaks. Autism Speaks Inc., n.d. Web. 01 Nov. 2016. <https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism/asperger-syndrome>.
    Rett Syndrome
    Rett syndrome is a rare non-inherited genetic postnatal neurological disorder that occurs almost exclusively in girls and leads to severe impairments, affecting nearly every aspect of a child’s life: their ability to speak, walk, eat and even breathe easily. It is often misdiagnosed as autism, cerebral palsy, or non-specific developmental delay. It is caused by mutations on the X chromosome on a gene called MECP2. There are more than 200 different mutations found on the MECP2 gene. Most of these mutations are found in eight different “hot spots.” Rett syndrome occurs worldwide in 1 of every 10,000 female births. Rett syndrome causes problems in brain function that are responsible for cognitive, sensory, emotional, motor and autonomic function. These can include learning, speech, sensory, sensations, mood, movement, breathing, cardiac function, and even chewing, swallowing, and digestion.
    [rettcanada]. (2012, Jan 20). What is Rett Syndrome?. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d2Rv8JLH85I&app=desktop .
    "About Rett Syndrome."Rettsyndrom.org. International Rett Syndrome Foundation, n.d. Web. 01 Nov. 2016. <https://www.rettsyndrome.org/>.
    Teaching Strategies for All:
    Give very specific directions
    Don't use sarcasm
    Make directions simple
    Be patient
    Give directions multiple times

    Communication Disorders:
    An impairment in the ability to receive, send, process, and comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal and graphic symbols.
    Characteristics:
    · may be evident in the processes of hearing, language, and/or speech
    · range in severity from mild to profound
    · may be developmental or acquired
    · Individuals may demonstrate one or a combination of communication disorders
    · Repetition, actions while speaking, leaving out consonants, leaving out sounds
    1. A speech disorder is an impairment of the articulation of speech sounds, fluency and/or voice
    § Articulation- speech sounds
    § Fluency- flow of speaking
    § Voice- absence of vocal quality or pitch
    2. A language disorder is impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written and/or other symbol systems.
    § Form of language- phonology, morphology, syntax
    § Content of language- semantics, meanings of words and phrases
    § Function of language- pragmatics, combines components in appropriate communication
    3. A hearing disorder is the result of impaired auditory sensitivity of the physiological auditory system.
    § Deaf- limits communication
    § Hard of hearing- fluctuating or permanent
    Possible Causes:
    · Hearing impairment
    · ADD, Autism
    · Cerebral Palsy
    · Vocal cord injury
    · Tourette Syndrome
    · Head trauma
    · Stroke
    Educational Strategies:
    · Repeat sounds and phrases
    · Work with speech teachers
    · Work with parents
    · Provide an interpreter
    · Be patient and a good listener
    · Allow more time
    · Group activities with other students in general education class
    · Alternate activities
    · Make instructions clear
    · Let them express themselves in class discussions and allow participation
    Reference:
    @. (n.d.). Definitions of Communication Disorders and Variations. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://www.asha.org/policy/RP1993-00208/
    Communication Disorders Teaching Strategies. (n.d.). Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://sesd.info/inclusion site/disabilities teaching strategies/Communication Disorders/communication disorders strategies.htm
    Video:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vCXdk_cliiQ

    Cerebral Palsy-
    a condition marked by impaired muscle coordination (spastic paralysis) and/or other disabilities, typically caused by damage to the brain before or at birth.Ranges from mild to severe. Can't be cured but with treatment symptoms can get better. Flippy, stiff or rigid limbs and movement can be hard to control.
    Muscular:
    hard to walk
    difficulty with moving the body
    muscle rigidity
    coordination problems
    overactive reflexes
    involuntary movements
    Weakness and spasms in the muscles
    can be paralysis of one side of the body
    Developmental:
    failure to thrive
    may have a learning disability
    slow growth
    Delayed speech
    Speech:
    speech disorder or stuttering
    Also common:
    difficulty swallowing and possibly drooling
    hearing loss
    paralysis
    seizures
    teeth grinding
    tremors
    Educational Implications:
    Switches
    Walkers/Standers
    Classroom free of obstacles
    Knowledge of communication devices the student may have
    Being prepared for medical emergencies
    Assistive technology
    PODD Communication (Pragmatic Organization Dynamic Display): Example:
    http://praacticalaac.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/podd-book-2.jpg
    Video what cerebral palsy is:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cOfUGUNxEqU
    Video on Lydia!!:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=puNhAB-iLUI
    References:
    Foundation, N. (2016). Kids health. Retrieved from Special Needs Fact Sheet: Cerebral Palsy: Pragmatic Organisation Dynamic Display
    Foundation, U. C. (2016). United cerebral palsy foundation. Retrieved from What is Cerebral Palsy? : http://ucpsdfoundation.org/whatiscp.html
    Myself
    Epilepsy
    Characteristics:
    Brain disorder which causes seizures. Seizures can last for a couple seconds to a several minutes. There are 40 types of epilepsy with different causes and different types of seizures. The kind of seizure depends on which part and how much of the brain is affected by the electrical disturbance that produces seizures. Two major groups: Generalized Seizures which involve both sides of the brain, and Partial Seizures which involve one area of the brain.
    Possible causes:
    For some patients the cause is unknown (2 in 3 patients)
    Some known causes are: stroke, brain tumor, head injury, loss of oxygen to the brain, brain infections, some genetic disorders (Down Syndrome), some neurological disorders (Alzheimer's Disease) (Epilepsy Foundation, 2015).
    Educational Strategies:
    Develop an individualized seizure action plan (provide treatment, minimize class disruptions, and allow students to return to class as soon as possible)
    Document seizure: note changes in student’s behavior, emotions, physical demeanor, intellectual abilities, loss of consciousness, confusion, unresponsiveness, breathing problems, vision/hearing problems, length or duration of seizure, ect.)
    With permission from parents and student, the teacher can have the student with epilepsy share his/her experience with it and the teacher can provide additional information (grade appropriate). Teachers can share this information before a seizure happens.
    Teachers should provide simple instructions, not too fast, multiple formats (auditory and visual), graphic organizers, tests that assess recognition rather than recall (multiple choice vs. fill-in-the-blank), break test into smaller parts, flexible time for taking the test (Hart Barnett, Gay, 2015)..
    Video:
    What People with Epilepsy Hear! (A Lot)
    Person with epilepsy discusses some of the questions and comments people with epilepsy hear frequently.
    __https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qet0XYAKw94__
    References:
    Epilepsy Foundation, (2015). Epilepsy 101. Retrieved from
    __http://www.efepa.org/living-with-epilepsy/epilepsy-101/__
    Epilepsy Foundation, (2015). Types of seizures. Retrieved from
    __http://www.efepa.org/living-with-epilepsy/types-of-seizures/__
    Hart Barnett, J. E., & Gay, C. (2015). Accommodating student with epilepsy or seizure disorders:
    Effective strategies for teachers. Physical Disabilities: Education and Related Services, 34(1), 1-13. Retrieved from __http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1070156.pdf__
    Epilepsy-
    Multiple Sclerosis-
    Definition- a disease of the nervous system that causes the gradual loss of muscle control. a demyelinating disease marked by patches of hardened tissue in the brain or the spinal cord and associated especially with partial or complete paralysis and jerking muscle tremor.
    Characteristics-
    Most diagnosed 20-50 years
    Women 2x more likely
    No evidence that directly inherited
    Commonly among Caucasians, but anybody can get it
    The progress, severity, and specific symptoms of MS in any one person cannot yet be predicted. ranges from abnormal fatigue, severe vision problems, develop attention and memory issues. Even severe symptoms could disappear completely and the person could regain lost functions. In the worst cases- people can have partial or complete paralysis.
    Possible causes- “In MS, symptoms result when inflammation and breakdown occur in myelin, the protective insulation surrounding the nerve fibers of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). The nerve fibers themselves are also damaged. Myelin is destroyed and replaced by scars of hardened "sclerotic" patches of tissue. Such lesions are called "plaques," and appear in "multiple" places within the central nervous system. This can be compared to a loss of insulating material around an electrical wire, which interferes with the transmission of signals.”(MS the Disease)
    Educational strategies- accommodations (large print, seating arrangements, make the room wheelchair accessible, reduction in homework if the student has extreme fatigue or problems with writing) or modifications (different material if having memory issues) to help the student succeed. Providing a para educator if needed.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Naecv3h868c&feature=youtu.be
    Works Cited
    Merriam-Webster. (2016). Retrieved from Merriam-Webster: http://www.merriam-webster.com/
    Lewis, R. B., & Doorlag, D. H. (2011). Teaching Students with Special Needs in General Education Classroom. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc.
    MS the Disease. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Multiple Sclerosis Society: http://www.nationalmssociety.org/About-the-Society/Press-Room/MS-the-Disease
    What Is Multiple Sclerosis? [Video file]. (2013, May 8). Retrieved October 28, 2016, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Naecv3h868c&feature=youtu.be

    Muscular Dystrophy -
    Definition- A group of chronic inherited disorders characterized by progressive weakening and wasting of voluntary skeletal muscles. (book)
    Characteristics- The main sign of muscular dystrophy is progressive muscle weakness. Specific signs and symptoms begin at different ages and in different muscle groups, depending on the type of muscular dystrophy.
    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (most common)
    Although girls can be carriers and mildly affected, the disease typically affects boys. (Diseases and Conditions)
    Signs typically 2-3 years, and may include:
    Frequent falls
    Difficulty getting up from a lying or sitting position
    Trouble running and jumping
    Waddling gait
    Walking on the toes
    Large calf muscles
    Muscle pain and stiffness
    Learning disabilities
    Other types of muscular dystrophy are Becker muscular dystrophy, Myotonic, Facioscapulohumeral (FSHD), Congenital, Limb-girdle.
    Possible causes- Certain genes are involved in making proteins that protect muscle fibers from damage. Muscular dystrophy occurs when one of these genes is defective.
    Each form of muscular dystrophy is caused by a genetic mutation to that type of the disease. Many of these mutations are inherited. But some occur spontaneously in the mother's egg or the developing embryo and can be passed on to the next generation.
    Educational strategies-
    “Teaching will involve careful planning and goal setting to support the student and their family. This should focus around an individual education plan (IEP) which will allow all parties to share concerns, provide emotional support, update each other on progress and outcomes of treatment, and set educational and therapeutic goals. A team approach is vital, as is a caring, accepting nature and an overall awareness of the likely long term outcomes for many students.
    As a teacher, your role involves:
    •realistic planning and teaching of educational content.
    •the ability to engage the student in suitable, productive and enjoyable tasks.
    •the ability to adapt the content to suit periods of absence, illness and changing abilities.
    •skills in providing age appropriate content that takes account of factors such as fatigue, variable attendance, changes in mood and frustration and distress at a deteriorating physical condition.
    •needing to support other students and teaching staff in the school environment.
    •having an awareness of the needs of students with terminal disabilities.” (Vize, 2012)
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6wLnR7GJakY
    Works cited
    BrainPOP animation about Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy [Video file]. (2008, June 9). In You Tube. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
    Merriam-Webster. (2016). Retrieved from Merriam-Webster: http://www.merriam-webster.com/
    Lewis, R. B., & Doorlag, D. H. (2011). Teaching Students with Special Needs in General Education Classroom. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc.
    Staff, M. C. (2016). Diseases and Conditions. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/muscular-dystrophy/basics/symptoms/con-20021240
    Vize, A. (2012, 01 5). Bright Hub Education . Retrieved from Muscular Dystrophy - What Teachers Need to Know: http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-physical-disabilities/25193-muscular-dystrophy-in-the-classroom-teaching-students-with-dmd/

    Spina Bifida -
    Happens when a baby's backbone (spine) does not form normally. As a result, the spinal cord and the nerves that branch out of it may be damaged.
    The defect causes an opening in the back, which is visible.
    This defect happens at the end of the first month of pregnancy, when a baby's spine and spinal cord (a bundle of nerves that runs down the center of the spine) are developing.
    Depending on the severity of the defect and where it is on the spine, symptoms vary. Mild defects may cause few or no problems, while more severe defects can cause serious problems, including weakness, loss of bladder control, or paralysis.
    Low levels of the vitamin folic acid during pregnancy are linked to spina bifida.
    A high fever during pregnancy may increase a woman's chances of having a baby with spina bifida. Women with epilepsy who have taken the drug valproic acid to control seizures also are at an increased risk of having a baby with spina bifida.
    Educational Strategies
    Meet with the student and parents early in the school year to discuss how the school can support this student's needs related to SMA. This could include finding out about:
    the student's strengths, interests and areas of need
    the student's specific symptoms
    Successful strategies used at home or in the community that could be used at school.
    In collaboration with parents and health care professionals, develop a written management plan that aligns with related jurisdictional policies and protocols. This should include specific information, such as:
    symptoms that may affect the student at school and may require monitoring
    the role of school staff
    equipment and environmental modifications
    When and what emergency measures should be taken.
    Determine and arrange for any equipment or classroom modifications that might be needed. This may include accommodations for mobility equipment, supportive seating, supportive toilet seats and/or mechanical lifts.
    Spinal Muscular Atrophy. (2015). Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/inmdict/html/spinal_muscular_atrophy.html
    Piatt, J. (2016, October). Spina Bifida. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/spina-bifida.html
    Spina Bifida Animation. (2011, March 10). Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ouMi5z1vwbE
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ouMi5z1vwbE

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  3. page Chapter 1 Vocabulary edited Use your text, Internet, and/or any other resource to find the definitions for the following vocabu…
    Use your text, Internet, and/or any other resource to find the definitions for the following vocabulary that will be used throughout this term.
    Special Students (Bethany)
    any student that is in need of accommodations
    Zero
    /Zero reject/Child Find (Ashley)
    Zero reject: Schools must educate all children with disabilities. The requirement to provide special education services to all children with disabilities is absolute between the ages of 6 and 17, but services need to be provided to 3-5 and 18-21 if the state provides educational services for these age groups.
    Child find: the locating, identifying, and evaluating all children (birth to age 21), residing the state with disabilities or who are suspected of having disabilities.

    Nondiscriminatory Evaluation: (Ashley)
    Schools must use nonbiased, multifactored methods of evaluation to determine whether a child has a disability and, if so, whether special education is needed. All tests must be administered in the child’s native language, and identification and placement decisions cannot be made based on one test score.
    Least

    Least
    Restrictive Environment (LRE) (Bethany)
    the appropriate placement closest to the general education classroom. Children with disabilities are educated with children who are nondisabled.
    Due

    Due
    Process (Jasmine)
    Fair treatment through the normal judicial system, especially as a citizen's entitlement.
    A legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
    Free,

    Free,
    Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) (Jasmine)
    An educational right of children with disabilities in the United States that is guaranteed by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Individuals with disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

    Individual Educational Program (IEP) (Rachel):
    a written educational plan that specifies the current levels of educational performance and annual goals for a student with a disability; prepared by a team that includes the student’s parent(s), teacher(s), and, if appropriate, the student.
    Transition

    Transition
    Services - (Vanessa)
    Activities that prepare students with disabilities to move from school to post-school life. The activities must be based on the student’s needs, preferences, and interests, and shall include needed activities in the following areas:
    Instruction
    Related services
    Community experiences
    Development of employment and other post-school adult living objects
    Acquisition of daily living skills (when appropriate)
    Functional vocational evaluation
    Inclusion (Jacob)
    The term inclusion is an all-embracing societal ideology. Regarding individuals with disabilities and special education, secures opportunities for students with disabilities to learn alongside their non-disabled peers in general education classrooms.
    Full inclusion (Brittany)
    A more recent term than mainstreaming. It is a reform for practices that exclude and segregate those with disabilities. The general education classroom is the most appropriate full-time placement for all students with disabilities. Individuals do not leave the classroom for special services, instead it is provided in the regular classroom setting.
    Gifted

    Inclusion/Full Inclusion -
    Gifted
    and Talented students (Maggie)
    Gifted and talented students are those who demonstrate outstanding levels of aptitude (defined as an exceptional ability to reason and learn) or competence (performance or achievement in top 10% or rarer) in one or more domains. These domains can range anywhere from mathematics, music, and language to painting, dance, or sports.
    The definition of gifted and talented students also varies depending on the state.

    Culturally &
    ...
    students - (Bobbie)
    Students whose home cultures (and perhaps languages) differ from that of the school. Such students may require special assistance to succeed in general education. Page 6
    Students

    Students
    placed at risk - (Abby)
    An at-risk student is a term used in the United States to describe a student who requires temporary or ongoing intervention in order to succeed academically.
    Normalization- (Gunner)
    Is a process of helping individuals with special needs-those with mental/development disabilities- to live as "normal" of a life as possible.

    Related services- (Anastasia)
    Auxiliary services such as psychological services for assessment, transportation, or physical therapy that are available to help students with disabilities derive maximum benefit from spacial education.

    Special Education- (Abby)
    Special education–instruction that is specially designed to meet the unique educational needs of students with disabilities.
    .
    Supplementary aids and services (Gunner)
    Support for the individual with disabilities in a normal classroom to learn in the same classroom as a non disabled student.
    .
    Person first language (Tyus)
    Person first language, people with disabilities, are first and foremost, an individual with a disability. Person first language emphasizes the person first, not the disability.
    By placing the person first, the disability is no longer the primary, defining characteristic of an individual, but one of several aspects of the whole person.

    Accommodation- (Brittany)
    Anything that supplies a need or for convenience. A change that helps a student work around a disability. Ex. Wheelchair accessibility, different forms of assessment, extra time, provide different forms of material, etc.
    Modification (Bobbie)
    the act or process of changing parts of something (such as a system or style). (Webster Dictionary)
    The book references modifications that can be made to improve student performance in the classroom are any aspect of the program: the classroom curriculum, how instruction is delivered, the learning activities in which students participate, how students are graded, the physical arrangement of the classroom, and strategies for managing student behavior. Page 32
    Curricular adaptations- are changes in the body of knowledge and skills taught to the students
    Instructional adaptations- these changes may involve any part of the teaching-learning process: the teacher's instructional methods and strategies, learning activities and instructional materials, performance requirements for students, testing and grading procedures, and grouping arrangements.
    Management adaptations- are changes in the classroom behavior management system.
    Environmental adaptations- are changes in the physical environment of the classroom. ex. desk arrangement
    Litigation

    Modification
    -
    The process of taking legal action
    (Anastasia)

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  4. page Chapter 1 The 3 Laws edited From the information found in Chapter 1 and the handout titled "IDEA, ADA, and 504 Definitions…
    From the information found in Chapter 1 and the handout titled "IDEA, ADA, and 504 Definitions" found under Doc Sharing on PLS, please write key components of each law with your group.
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Snickers)
    Individuals with Disabilities Act
    Individuals with Disabilities Act, IDEA, was originally enacted by Congress in 1975 to ensure that children with disabilities have the opportunity to receive appropriate public education, just like other children.
    oReasons Congress enacted this law:
    About one million children with disabilities had been excluded from the public school system
    Large numbers of students in general education classes were experiencing failure because their disabilities had not yet been detected.
    Congress concluded that less than half of the students with disabilities in the United States were receiving appropriate educational services.
    The most recent amendments were passed by Congress in December of 2004.
    Ages: Birth to 22 years’ old
    Definition: 4-part piece of American legislation that insure students with a disability are provided free appropriate public education that is tailored to their education needs
    General Provisions:Lays out the basic foundation for the Act. This section defines the terms used within the Act as well as provides for the creation of the Office of Special Education Programs, which is responsible for administering and carrying out the terms of IDEA
    Assistance for Education of All Children with Disabilities: governs how special education and related services are provided to school-aged children with disabilities
    Early Intervention for Babies and Toddlers: serves infants and toddlers through age 2 with developmental delays or who have diagnosed physical or mental conditions with high probabilities of resulting in developmental delays.
    National Activities to Improve Education of Children with Disabilities:describes national activities to be undertaken to improve the education of children with disabilities. These activities include grants to improve the education and transitional services provided to students with disabilities. In addition, this section provides resources to support programs, projects and activities which contribute positive results for children with disabilities
    CURRENT PROVISIONS (from book)
    It brings special education into closer conformity with the No Child Left Behind(NCLB) Act by spelling out what makes special education teachers “highly qualified.”
    It continues to mandate for participation of students with disabilities in state and district assessments required by NCLB.
    It changes the criteria for identifying students with specific learning disabilities.
    It modifies IEPs by requiring research-based interventions (if available) and the inclusion of annual goals but not benchmarks or short-term objectives.
    It relaxes requirements for IEP meetings- team members can be excluded from meetings in parent and school agree; meetings can be held via telephone or video conference; multiyear IEPs are allowable.
    It permits parent and school to decide that reevaluation for special education is unnecessary.
    It allows schools to change the placement of students with disabilities who violate that student conduct code.
    CURRENT PROVISONS (from website)
    Zero Reject
    Nondiscriminatory identification and evaluation
    Free, appropriate public education (FAPE)
    Least Restrictive Environment
    Due process safeguards
    Parent and student participation and shared decision making

    Americans with Disabilities Act (Milky Way)
    Year: 1990
    Key Components: Prohibits discrimination not only in school system, but also in the public.
    Ages: All, especially after other laws go out of service.

    Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act (Twix)
    date: 1973
    Civil rights for people with disabilities (all ages)
    Individuals with disabilities cannot be excluded, denied, or discriminated against in any program that is federally funded. Examples: Jobs, activities, and schools.

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